Apache Security was originally published by O'Reilly in , and it was .. by Avishai Wool: rerajeretla.tk~yash/computerpdf. But if you're looking for an apache security PDF eBook, module, guide, tutorial, framework or web server security checklist, you've come to the. Using Security-focused Apache Modules. Page 4. rerajeretla.tk We harden recent releases of Apache entirely The Apache configuration file has three parts.
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The Web server - Apache - Complete Guide is one of the many topics covered .. Being able to configure and secure the Apache Web server is one of the most. APACHE. SECURITY. Ivan Ristiæ. The Complete Guide to Securing. Your Apache Web Server. EDITION. DIGITAL. REPRINT. Of those, 11 cover the technical issues of securing Apache and web applications. . Errors” by Avishai Wool: rerajeretla.tk~yash/computerpdf.).
It needs to be specified in the virtual host section of the config file. You can see below mentioned virtual host configuration, generated log will be custom for that virtual host and the format will be combined. Configure your very first Production Web Sever 1. The Web Server must have a direct network connection and a staticIP address configured on it. It needs to have all the modules required for running web pages.
It also needs to have a good Antivirus application configured and running for securing the Web Server from Malware or Virus attacks. If you have hundreds of domains to be hosted on your web server, you must have to implement limitations on file system quota for each domain, number of databases each domain can create, number of email accounts per domain etc. If your web server has been setup for shared hosting services, users on your web server needs to be restricted.
Apache does not provide any such functionality and needs different third party applications, customization of OS to achieve this. If you are adding a new domain on your web server, it needs editing hundreds of configuration file to enable all features for the added domain. If one of the hosted domains requires different PHP setting than rest of the domains, implementing this in core Apache web server is very complex and needs customization of your web server in great extent.
A production web server needs a firewall to block unwanted traffic that could cause high load on your server. A production web server requires several different applications like Email, FTP for file upload, Domain Name System for parked domains. So, one can say that managing a web server for multiple domains is very complex task and requires editing hundreds of configuration file, customizing each application to fulfill the desired result.
Troubleshooting any miss configuration will be very difficult for beginners. Both lines of thought are correct: In this chapter, I look at security as a process; the rest of the book covers its static aspects.
Another way of looking at security is as a state of mind. Keeping systems secure is an ongoing battle where one needs be alert and vigilant at all times, and remain one step ahead of adversaries. But you need to come to terms that being percent secure is impossible.
Sometimes, we cannot control circumstances, though we do the best we can. Sometimes we slip.
Apache Tutorials for Beginners
Or we may have encountered a smarter adversary. I have found that being humble increases security. But if you are aware of your own limitations, you are likely to work hard to overcome them and ensure all angles are covered.
Knowing that absolute security is impossible, we must accept occasional failure as certainty and design and build defensible systems. Richard Bejtlich http: Defensible systems are the ones that can give you a chance in a fight in spite of temporary losses. They can be defended. Defensible systems are built by following the essential security principles presented in the following section. In this section, I present principles every security professional should know. These principles have evolved over time and are part of the information security body of knowledge.
If you make a habit of reading the information security literature, you will find the same security principles recommended at various places, but usually not all in one place.
The Ultimate Apache Security Best Practices Checklist
Here are the essential security principles:. Compartmentalization is a concept well understood by submarine builders and by the captain of the Starship Enterprise. On a submarine, a leak that is not contained to the quarter in which it originated will cause the whole submarine to be filled with water and lead to the death of the entire crew.
This concept also benefits computer security. Compartmentalization is all about damage control. The idea is to design the whole to consist of smaller connected parts. This principle goes well together with the next one. Each part of the system a program or a user should be given the privileges it needs to perform its normal duties and nothing more.
That way, if one part of the system is compromised, the damage will be limited.
The 14-Step Apache Security Best Practices Checklist (PDF eBook included)
Defense in depth is about having multiple independent layers of security. If there is only one security layer, the compromise of that layer compromises the entire system. Multiple layers are preferable. For example, if you have a f irewall in place, an independent intrusion detection system can serve to control its operation. Having two firewalls to defend the same entry point, each from a different vendor, increases security further.
Attackers commonly work in the dark and perform reconnaissance to uncover as much information about the target as possible. We should not help them. Keep information private whenever you can. But keeping information private is not a big security tool on its own. Unless the system is secure, obscurity will not help much. Make sure that whenever a system component fails, it fails in such a way as to change into a more secure state.
Using an obvious example, if the login procedure cannot complete because of some internal problem, the software should reject all login requests until the internal problem is resolved.
The whole system is as secure as its weakest link. Take the time to understand all system parts and focus your efforts on the weak parts. Humans do not cope with complexity well. A study has found we can only hold up to around seven concepts in our heads at any one time. Anything more complex than that will be hard to understand.
A simple system is easy to configure, verify, and use. At this point, a short vocabulary of frequently used security terms would be useful. You may know some of these terms, but some are specific to the security industry. A less-than-ideal aspect of a system, which can be used by attackers in some way to bring them closer to achieving their goals.
A weakness may be used to gain more information or as a stepping-stone to other system parts. A method but it can be a tool as well of exploiting a vulnerability. This can be used to break in or to increase user privileges known as privilege elevation. An entry point an adversary could use to attempt to break in.
The 14-Step Apache Security Best Practices Checklist (PDF eBook included)
A popular technique for reducing risk is to close the entry point completely for the attacker. Apache running on port 80 is one example of an entry point.
The area within an entry point that can be used for an attack. This term is usually used in discussions related to the reduction of attack surface. For example, moving an e-commerce administration area to another IP address where it cannot be accessed by the public reduces the part of the application accessible by the attacker and reduces the attack surface and the risk.
Expanding on the four generic phases of the security process mentioned earlier assessment, protection, detection, and response , we arrive at seven practical steps that cover one iteration of a continuous process:. Understand the environment and the security requirements of the project. The first three steps of this process, referred to as threat modeling , are covered in the next section. The remaining steps are covered throughout the book. Threat modeling is a fancy name for rational and methodical thinking about what you have, who is out there to get you, and how.
Armed with that knowledge, you decide what you want to do about the threats. It is genuinely useful and fun to do, provided you do not overdo it. It is a loose methodology that revolves around the following questions: Why would attackers want to disrupt your operation motivation?
How much would it cost to protect from threats threat ranking? Which threats will you fight against and how mitigation? The best time to start is at the very beginning, and use threat modeling for system design. But since the methodology is attack-oriented, it is never too late to start. It is especially useful for security assessment or as part of penetration testing an exercise in which an attempt is made to break into the system as a real attacker would. One of my favorite uses for threat modeling is system administrator training.
After designing several threat models, you will see the recurring patterns. Keeping the previous threat models is, therefore, an excellent way to document the evolution of the system and preserves that little bit of history.
At the same time, existing models can be used as starting points in new threat modeling efforts to save time. Table gives a list of reasons someone may attack you. This list and the one that follows it is somewhat optimized. Compiling a complete list of all the possibilities would result in a multipage document. Though the document would have significant value, it would be of little practical use to you.
I prefer to keep it short, simple, and manageable. Attackers often want to acquire something valuable, such as a customer database with credit cards or some other confidential or private information. This is a special form of the previous category. The servers you have with their bandwidth, CPU, and hard disk space are assets. Some attackers will want to use them to send email, store pirated software, use them as proxies and starting points for attacks on other systems, or use them as zombies in automated distributed denial of service attacks.
Some people love the thrill of breaking in. For them, the more secure a system, the bigger the thrill and desire to break in.
Well, this is not really a reason, but attacks happen by chance, too. Table gives a list of typical attacks on web systems and some ways to handle them. Typical attacks on web systems. Any of the network, web-server, or application-based attacks that result in denial of service, a condition in which a system is overloaded and can no longer respond normally.
Prepare for attacks as discussed in Chapter 5. Inspect the application to remove application-based attack points. These errors are our own fault.
Surprisingly, they happen more often than you might think. Create a secure initial installation as described in Chapter 2 - Chapter 4. Plan changes, and assess the impact of changes before you make them. Implement independent assessment of the configuration on a regular basis.
That said, you should keep an eye on your server traffic as well. Basically, it will tell you what users do whenever they touch your server. The good news is that you can now get an SSL certificate for free. This is more important now than ever, so if you don't have the technical ability to install this yourself, any quality hosting provider will be able to do it for you. For Apache, this means turning on ModSecurity. Once the firewall is live, it will prevent a number of malicious activities from reaching your server, like SQL injection, session hijacking, and cross-site scripting.
It will blacklist concurrent and failed login attempts as well as monitor for malicious IPs. Distributed denial of service DDoS attacks are pretty simple to block if you know what sort of actions to watch for. Since DDoS tend to happen by repeatedly hitting your server with large requests, your goal should be to set limits that prevent this from happening. The first thing you should do is find out which modules are actually active.
You can do this by using a LoadModule command. Default settings and users left on any software, in general, is a bad security practice. The reason for this is simple: Rather than leave the defaults in place, you should create a new non-privileged account to run your Apache processes through.
Using groupadd and useradd commands, you can set the new entities. Just remember to update your httpd.For example, books usually have chapters set to always start on an odd-numbered right-hand page. Unless the system is secure, obscurity will not help much. Though the document would have significant value, it would be of little practical use to you. System-hardening matrix example Technique Category 4: Attack surface The area within an entry point that can be used for an attack.
It needs to have all the modules required for running web pages. Defensible systems are built by following the essential security principles presented in the following section.
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